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CancerGuide: Alternative and Complementary Therapies

Evaluating Alternative Therapies
Separating The Wheat From the Chaff (will open in new window!)
Promising Therapies
+ PSK
Lesser Known Therapies
Lentinan References
Popular Therapies
Essiac
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MedLine Search: Lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide from the Shitake mushroom

Legacy MedLine Search

The Shitake mushroom is a common culinary mushroom used in Chinese, and Japanese cooking. In the US, Shitake is available fresh or dried in oriental markets, health food markets, and even many supermarkets. In Japan, Lentinan, an extract of this mushroom, has been used against colorectal and stomach cancer, often in conjunction with other treatment such as chemotherapy, and Japanese researchers have presented data supporting this use. Like most of the other polysaccharide drugs, Lentinan appears to be an immunostimulant. Almost all of the Japanese studies use injected Lentinan, so it is very unclear whether eating Shitake mushrooms could have a beneficial effect aside from the considerable culinary virtues.

This MedLine Search of the technical medical literature is from the early days of CancerGuide so it may not include the latest research. The articles referenced are still relevant but more recent ones may also be available. For more information on the incredibly powerful and freely available MedLine database see my Article on MedLine.

In all cases I have selected the references that looked most interesting to me. These are searches with a point of view! There could be references on this same subject that I didn't include that you would have. For both of these reasons as well as the age of the search, you may want to consider doing your own search on this subject after looking at mine.

Finally, keep in mind that the abstracts presented here are only summaries of the actual articles. If you want to delve deeper you may want to get some of these articles from a Medical Library or an online document delivery service, as is provided with all MedLine accesses (usually for a fairly substantial fee).


FRI FEB 23,1996 10:16 PM

PaperChase provides 9,075,068 references -- all references found in the
following databases of the National Library of Medicine and the National
Cancer Institute*.  You are searching all four databases simultaneously.

  Database    Indexing Began    Updated     Current through
   MEDLINE        1966          weekly       April 1996 Update, Part 2
   HEALTH         1975          monthly      December 1995 Update
   AIDSLINE       1980          monthly      December 1995 Update
  *CANCERLIT      1980          monthly      February 1996 Update


LIST                    REFERENCES   LIST                     REFERENCES
 A) LENTINAN                   290    C) *ON A&B                     168
 B) NEOPLASMS         1162093


*****CANCER RESEARCH*****

(REFERENCE 1 OF 21)
71057757

Chihara G  Hamuro J  Maeda Y  Arai Y  Fukuoka F
Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked
  antitumor activity, especially lentinan, from Lentinus edodes (Berk.)
  Sing. (an edible mushroom).

In: Cancer Res (1970 Nov) 30(11):2776-81

[No Abstract Available]


*****CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN*****

(REFERENCE 2 OF 21)
88027328

Nanba H  Mori K  Toyomasu T  Kuroda H
Antitumor action of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fruit bodies orally
  administered to mice.

In: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) (1987 Jun) 35(6):2453-8

[No Abstract Available]


*****BIOTHERAPY*****

(REFERENCE 3 OF 21)
92399132

Oka M  Yoshino S  Hazama S  Shimoda K  Suzuki T
Immunological analysis and clinical effects of intraabdominal and
  intrapleural injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural
  effusion.

In: Biotherapy (1992) 5(2):107-12

Twenty effusions in sixteen patients with malignant peritoneal and/or
  pleural effusions were treated with intracavitary injection of
  lentinan. Lentinan was injected at a dosage of 4 mg/week for 4 weeks.
  In total, sixteen (80%) of twenty lesions demonstrated clinical
  responses. Performance status was improved in seven patients. The
  average survival time in responders was 129 days, while, in non-
  responders, it was 49 days. Serious toxicities were not observed. NK
  activity of PBMC significantly decreased after lentinan injection. NK
  activity of PEC in responders was augmented significantly. Anti-Daudi
  and lymphokine activated killer activity were also augmented or
  maintained after lentinan injection.

Institutional address:
     Second Department of Surgery
     Yamaguchi University School of Medicine
     Japan.


*****CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY*****

(REFERENCE 4 OF 21)
94185237

Suto T  Fukuda S  Moriya N  Watanabe Y  Sasaki D  Yoshida Y  Sakata Y
Clinical study of biological response modifiers as maintenance
  therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol (1994) 33 Suppl:S145-8

We conducted a randomized, controlled trial comparing 5-fluorouracil
  (5-FU) with or without biological response modifiers (BRMs) as a
  maintenance therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after
  treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), transcatheter
  arterial embolization (TAE) or arterial infusion of antitumor agents
  (AI). A total of 58 cases of HCC were classified into 4 groups as
  follows: group I, PSK with 5-FU (n = 15); group II, lentinan with 5-
  FU (n = 15); group III, OK-432 with 5-FU (n = 12); and group IV, 5-FU
  alone as the control (n = 16). The mean survival time, mortality
  rate, time to progression, and T4/T8 ratio of lymphocytes in the
  peripheral blood were compared among the four groups. There was no
  significant difference in the background factors among the groups. In
  group I, the T4/T8 ratio of lymphocytes was reduced after the
  therapy. No significant difference was found among the groups in
  terms of the mean survival time, mortality rate, or time to
  progression. PEI for initial therapy was superior to the other
  therapies in terms of the mean survival time and mortality rate.
  These results suggest that the addition of BRM to maintenance therapy
  with 5-FU exerts no prognostic benefit on HCC patients treated with
  PEI, TAE, or AI.

Institutional address:
     First Department of Internal Medicine
     Hirosaki University School of Medicine
     Japan.


*****CANCER DETECTION AND PREVENTION.  SUPPLEMENT*****

(REFERENCE 5 OF 21)
88080256

Chihara G  Hamuro J  Maeda YY  Shiio T  Suga T  Takasuka N  Sasaki T
Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinan as an
  immunomodulator: an overview.

In: Cancer Detect Prev Suppl (1987) 1:423-43

The antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities, mode of action,
  and clinical application of lentinan, a strictly purified beta-
  1,6:beta-1,3-glucan, are reviewed. Lentinan exerts a prominent
  antitumor effect and prevents chemical and viral oncogenesis. The
  antitumor action of lentinan is host-mediated. Compared to other well-
  known immunostimulants, such as bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG),
  Corynebacterium parvum, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lentinan
  appears to represent a unique class of immunopotentiator, a T cell-
  oriented adjuvant. Lentinan triggers the increased production of
  various kinds of bioactive serum factors associated with immunity and
  inflammation, such as IL-1, CSF, IL-3, vascular dilation inducer, and
  acute-phase protein inducer, by the direct impact of macrophages or
  indirectly via lentinan-stimulated T cells, which results in the
  induction of many immunobiological changes in the host. Augmented IL-
  1 production amplifies the maturation of immature effector cells to
  mature cells capable of responding to lymphokines such as IL-2 and T
  cell-replacing factors. Because of this mode of action, intact T cell
  compartments for antitumor activity of lentinan are required.
  Lentinan has little toxic side effects. Excellent results were
  obtained in a 4 year follow-up of the randomized control study of
  lentinan in phase III on patients with advanced and recurrent stomach
  and colorectal cancer.

Institutional address:
     National Cancer Center Research Institute
     Tokyo
     Japan.

(REFERENCE 6 OF 21)
88080247

Taguchi T
Clinical efficacy of lentinan on patients with stomach cancer: end
  point results of a four-year follow-up survey.

In: Cancer Detect Prev Suppl (1987) 1:333-49

End-point results of a 4-yr followup survey and a randomized control
  trial of lentinan (LNT) on patients with advanced or recurrent
  stomach cancer have been investigated in order to evaluate the
  clinical efficacy of LNT in combination with chemotherapeutic agent
  tegafur (FT). Eligible (68) patients in control groups were
  administered with FT consecutively at doses of 600 mg/day, and
  eligible (96) patients in the treated group were administered LNT in
  combination with FT. LNT was injected intravenously 2 mg weekly.
  Remarkable lifespan prolongation effects of LNT have been observed
  both at the end of the control trial and at the end of the followup
  survey (p less than 0.01) using Kaplan-Meier's method and the
  generalized Wilcoxian test. Remarkable survival at 1, 2 and 3 years
  has been observed in the treated group using lifetable analysis. Side
  effects of LNT have been transitional and not serious. Thus, LNT
  should be effective in combination with FT for patients with stomach
  cancer.

Institutional address:
     Department of Oncologic Surgery
     Osaka University
     Japan.


*****CANCER IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOTHERAPY*****

(REFERENCE 7 OF 21)
93145302

Ladanyi A  Timar J  Lapis K
Effect of lentinan on macrophage cytotoxicity against metastatic
  tumor cells.

In: Cancer Immunol Immunother (1993) 36(2):123-6

We studied the effect of lentinan, a fungal polysaccharide
  immunomodulator, on mouse peritoneal macrophages. The i.p. treatment
  of mice with 10 mg/kg lentinan affected the number, plastic-
  adherence, and endogen peroxidase activity of peritoneal cells. The
  cytotoxicity of lentinan-stimulated peritoneal macrophages was
  determined against several murine and human metastatic tumor targets:
  Lewis lung carcinoma (LLT) and two human melanomas, and was found to
  be significantly higher than that of the macrophages from control
  animals. However, the highly metastatic variant of LLT (LLT-HH) was
  resistant to the cytolytic effect of resident and lentinan-activated
  macrophages as well, indicating that the stimulation for cytotoxicity
  depends not only on the functional activity of the effector but also
  on the sensitivity of the target.

Institutional address:
     1st Institute of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research
     Semmelweis Medical University
     Budapest
     Hungary.


*****DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION*****

(REFERENCE 8 OF 21)
93050820

Chihara G
Recent progress in immunopharmacology and therapeutic effects of
  polysaccharides.

In: Dev Biol Stand (1992) 77:191-7

Lentinan, a (1----3)-beta-D-glucan with (1----6)-beta-D-
  glucopyranoside branches and its related polysaccharides have marked
  antitumour activity in allogeneic, syngeneic and autochthonous
  primary hosts, suppress chemical and viral oncogenesis, and prevent
  cancer recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Results of the
  clinical application of lentinan have proven prolongation of life-
  span of the patients with advanced and recurrent stomach, colorectal
  and breast cancer with only little toxic side effect. These
  polysaccharides also increase host resistance to various kinds of
  bacterial, viral and parasitic infections including AIDS. Lentinan
  appears to represent Host Defence Potentiators (HDPs), which can
  restore or augment the ability of responsiveness of the host to
  lympho-cytokines or other intrinsic bioactive factors through
  maturation, differentiation or proliferation of the important cells
  for host defence mechanisms. That is, HDPs might make the
  physiological constitution highly cancer and infection-resistant,
  which may be a concept in Oriental Medicine, the fundamental
  principle of which is to regulate homeostasis of the whole body and
  to bring the diseased person to his normal state. HDPs such as
  lentinan are the most appropriate drugs to prevent cancer recurrence,
  or the manifestation of AIDS symptoms in HIV carriers.

Institutional address:
     Biotechnology Research Center
     Teikyo University
     Kawasaki
     Japan.


*****GAN TO KAGAKU RYOHO [JAPANESE JOURNAL OF CANCER AND CHEMOTHERAPY]*****

(REFERENCE 9 OF 21)
92255360

Mashiko H  Satoh J  Hatayama H  Kitamura H
[A case of advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis completely
  responding to a combined immunochemotherapy with UFT, mitomycin C and
  lentinan]

In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1992 May) 19(5):715-8  (Published in Japanese)

A 74-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer of Borrmann type III
  and liver metastasis was treated by combined administration of UFT
  (400 mg/day, p. o.), Mitomycin C (14 mg/body/4w., i.v.) and Lentinan
  (2 mg/w., i.v.). Five and half months after the therapy, endoscopic
  examination and ultrasonography showed the primary and liver-
  metastatic lesions had completely disappeared. Ten months after the
  therapy, total gastrectomy and intraoperative liver wedge biopsy were
  performed and complete disappearance of cancer cells was
  histologically confirmed. The total dose of UFT, MMC and LNT
  administered until the operation was 76.4 g, 42 mg and 74 mg,
  respectively. However, the patient eventually died of the recurrence
  of liver metastases three years after the initial immunochemotherapy.

Institutional address:
     Dept. of Surgery
     Kurikoma Kokuho Hospital
     Miyagi
     Japan.

(REFERENCE 10 OF 21)
83281658

Taguchi T
[Effects of lentinan in advanced or recurrent cases of gastric,
  colorectal, and breast cancer]

In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1983 Feb) 10(2 Pt 2):387-93
  (Published in Japanese)

In order to evaluate clinical efficacy of Lentinan (LNT), a purified
  polysaccharide extracted from Lentinus edodes, randomized controlled
  studies with envelope method have been conducted on the patients with
  advanced or recurrent, stomach, colo-rectal and breast cancer.
  Administration condition of LNT for gastrointestinal cancer was
  designed as the following: LNT was administered intravenously at
  doses of 1 mg/person/day twice a week or 2 mg/person/day once a week
  in combination with mitomycine C + 5-FU (MF) or tegafur (FT). Control
  therapy was the administration of MF or FT alone. Survival curve
  drawn by Kaplan-Meier's method showed that life span prolongation
  effect of LNT was observed with statistical significance (P less than
  0.05 or P less than 0.01) by use of generalized Wilcoxon's test.
  Moreover, improvement of host immune responses was observed in LNT
  treated group, and hematological survey showed that incidence rate of
  abnormal value was significantly low in LNT treated group. Thus, LNT
  should be effective for the patients with advanced or recurrent
  stomach or colo-rectal cancer in combination with chemotherapeutic
  agents such as MF or FT. Regarding advanced or recurrent breast
  cancer, study is underway. LNT has been administered as an agent for
  supportive therapy to the patients with complete response, partial
  response or stable diseases which were induced by prior surgery of
  oophorectomy. Again, life span prolongation effect of LNT has been
  observed with statistical significance (P less than 0.05). This
  result suggests that LNT would also be effective for the patients
  with advanced or recurrent breast cancer as an agent for supportive
  therapy.

Institutional address:
     Research Institute for Microbial Diseases
     Osaka University.

(REFERENCE 11 OF 21)
96006462

Hazama S  Oka M  Yoshino S  Iizuka N  Wadamori K  Yamamoto K
  Hirazawa K  Wang F  Ogura Y  Masaki Y  et al
[Clinical effects and immunological analysis of intraabdominal and
  intrapleural injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural
  effusion of gastric carcinoma]

In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1995 Sep) 22(11):1595-7  (Published in Japanese)

Twenty-one patients with malignant peritoneal or pleural effusions of
  gastric carcinomas were treated with intracavitary injection of
  lentinan (LNT). LNT was injected at a dosage of 4 mg/week for 4
  weeks. In total, fifteen (71%) of twenty-one patients demonstrated
  clinical responses. Toxicity caused a high fever in only one case.
  LAK and ATK activities induced from peritoneal exudate cells (PEC)
  after culture with autologous tumor and interleukin-2 were examined
  before and after LNT injection. ATK activity was augmented, but LAK
  activity was reduced after LNT injection. These results indicate that
  intracavitary injection of LNT is a useful treatment for malignant
  effusions, and that LNT augments the induction of cytotoxic T-
  lymphocytes.

Institutional address:
     Dept. of Surgery II
     Yamaguchi University School of Medicine.

(REFERENCE 12 OF 21)
87297576

Wada T  Nishide T  Hatayama K  Chang SW  Tatsuta M  Yasutomi M
[A comparative clinical trial with tegafur plus lentinan treatment at
  two different doses in advanced cancer]

In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1987 Aug) 14(8):2509-12  (Published in Japanese)

In order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of combined tegafur plus
  lentinan treatment, a comparative trial was performed on patients
  with advanced cancer using two different doses, a conventional-dose
  group and a high-dose group. Thirty-four patients were evaluable in
  this trial. The doses of medication were 600 mg of tegafur p.o. daily
  and 1-2 mg of lentinan i.v. weekly in the conventional-dose group,
  and 1,200-800 mg of tegafur p.o. daily and 4 mg of lentinan i.v.
  weekly in the high-dose group. The response was evaluated using the
  criteria of Koyama. The response rates were 14.3% for the
  conventional-dose group and 25.0% for the high-dose group, although
  no statistical difference was observed Acute toxicities such as
  oppression in the anterior chest and dryness of the throat, which
  were considered to be probably due to lentinan, were noted in
  patients given rapid administration with 20 ml of solution. However,
  these effects disappeared with slow-drip infusion using 100-200 ml of
  solution. These results suggest that the combined tegafur plus
  lentinan treatment would be better administered at a dose higher than
  the conventional one for the treatment for advanced cancers.

Institutional address:
     1st Dept. of Surgery
     Kinki University School of Medicine.

(REFERENCE 13 OF 21)
86185567

Wakui A  Kasai M  Konno K  Abe R  Kanamaru R  Takahashi K  Nakai Y
  Yoshida Y  Koie H  Masuda H  et al
[Randomized study of lentinan on patients with advanced gastric and
  colorectal cancer. Tohoku Lentinan Study Group]

In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1986 Apr) 13(4 Pt 1):1050-9
  (Published in Japanese)

A randomized study of mitomycin C (MMC)+5-FU [control group] vs MMC+5-
  FU+lentinan (LNT) [LNT group] was conducted in order to evaluate the
  effect of LNT against advanced gastric and colorectal cancers by the
  envelope method in 166 patients, comprising of 115 cases of gastric
  cancer and 51 cases of colorectal cancer. Significant increases were
  observed in the survival rates for the LNT group (p less than 0.05)
  for both patients with gastric and colorectal cancer. No significant
  difference was observed in response rates between the aforesaid two
  groups, though the response rate in the LNT group was slightly higher
  than the control group. These results suggest that LNT in combination
  with anticancer drugs prolong the survival time of patients with
  advanced gastric and colorectal cancer.

Institutional address:
     Dept. of Clinical Cancer Chemotherapy
     Tohoku University.

(REFERENCE 14 OF 21)
85120968

Taguchi T  Furue H  Kimura T  Kondo T  Hattori T  Itoh I  Ogawa N
[Results of phase III study of lentinan]

In: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho (1985 Feb) 12(2):366-78  (Published in Japanese)

A follow-up survey of survivals (Oct. 1 '80 to May 1, '84) in a
  randomized controlled study (Aug. '79 to Sept. 30' 80) of lentinan in
  combination administration with chemotherapeutic agents such as 5FU +
  mitomycin C or tegafur on patients with advanced or recurrent
  gastrointestinal cancer has shown that lentinan has been effective in
  such cases with regard to the following facts: 1) A life span
  prolongation effect at the end-point has been observed with
  statistical significance in lentinan treated patients as was found in
  the phase III study. 2) Using the life table analysis method, a
  higher rate of survival has been observed in the lentinan treated
  group, especially in combination with tegafur for gastric cancer,
  clearly showing such high survival rates as 12.97% (P less than 0.05)
  at two years after, and 9.51% (P less than 0.05) and 3.81%, at three
  and four years after respectively, and for colorectal cancer, 9.10%
  and 4.55% at two years and three years after, respectively.

Institutional address:
     Osaka University.


*****GANN*****

(REFERENCE 15 OF 21)
77004110

Sasaki T  Takasuka N  Chihara G  Maeda YY
Antitumor activity of degraded products of lentinan: its correlation
  with molecular weight.

In: Gann (1976 Apr) 67(2):191-5

Lentinan, an antitumor polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes, was
  degraded to seven fractions by treatment with formic acid. The low
  molecular-weight fractions (I and II) showed no antitumor activity
  against sarcoma-180 solid-type tumor and the absorption maximum of
  Congo Red did not shift in their presence in 0.1M sodium hydroxide.
  The medium molecular-weight fraction III, which required the increase
  of doses (5 or 10 mg/kg) for inhibition of tumor growth, caused a
  little shift. On the other hand, the absorption maximum of Congo Red
  shifted largely by the presence of high moecular-weight fractions
  (IV approximately VII) which showed the inhibition ratio of over 95%
  in a dose of 1 mg/kg. Participation of molecular weight in the
  antitumor activity of polysaccharides which contain (1 leads to 3)-
  beta-D-glucan main chain was discussed.


*****HINYOKIKA KIYO.  ACTA UROLOGICA JAPONICA*****

(REFERENCE 16 OF 21)
94175035

Tari K  Satake I  Nakagomi K  Ozawa K  Oowada F  Higashi Y  Negishi T
  Yamada T  Saito H  Yoshida K
[Effect of lentinan for advanced prostate carcinoma]

In: Hinyokika Kiyo (1994 Feb) 40(2):119-23  (Published in Japanese)

A prospective, randomized multi-center study was conducted to assess
  the clinical effectiveness of Lentinan, an immunomodulatory agent, in
  the metastatic prostate cancer. Of seventy-five patients enrolled
  from July 1987 to June 1992, 69 were eligible. All patients received
  hormonal therapy and chemotherapy using Tegafur p.o. at a dose of 400-
  800 mg/day. While 33 patients received Lentinan i.m. for at least
  three months, the other 36 did not. The dose of Lentinan was 2 mg
  weekly for inpatients and 4 mg every other week for outpatients. The
  mean age of treated and control patients was 70 (range; 53-83) and 71
  (range; 50-86), respectively. The 50% survival length of treated and
  control patients was 48 and 35 months, respectively. The five-year
  survival rate of treated patients was 43% according to the Kaplan-
  Meier method, while that of control patients was 29% (p < 0.05). We
  conclude that Lentinan is effective in metastatic prostate cancer
  when incorporated into hormonochemotherapy.

Institutional address:
     Department of Urology
     Saitama Cancer Center.


*****INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY*****

(REFERENCE 17 OF 21)
92394698

Arinaga S  Karimine N  Takamuku K  Nanbara S  Inoue H  Nagamatsu M
  Ueo H  Akiyoshi T
Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer activity after
  lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma.

In: Int J Immunopharmacol (1992 May) 14(4):535-9

In 15 patients with gastric carcinoma, peripheral blood mononuclear
  cells (PBM) were obtained serially before and 3, 5 and 7 days after
  lentinan administration. The generation of lymphokine-activated
  killer (LAK) activity, induced by in vitro activation of PBM with
  interleukin 2 (IL 2), was significantly augmented 5 days after a
  single intravenous dose of 2 mg lentinan, when compared with that
  before lentinan injection. Natural killer (NK) activity of PBM was
  also significantly enhanced 7 days after the drug injection. However,
  the distribution of lymphocyte subsets exhibited no significant
  change following lentinan administration.

Institutional address:
     Department of Surgery
     Kyushu University
     Beppu
     Japan.


*****INT J IMMUNOTHERAPY*****

(REFERENCE 18 OF 21)
94696848

Ochiai T  Isono K  Suzuki T  Koide Y  Gunji Y  Nagata M  Ogawa N
Effect of immunotherapy with lentinan on patients' survival and
  immunological parameters in patients with advanced gastric cancer:
  results of a multicenter randomized controlled study (Meeting
  abstract).

In: Int J Immunotherapy (1992) 8(3):161-9 1992

The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapy with lentinan was
  assessed in a study involving 89 patients with inoperable or
  recurrent gastric cancer from February 1987 to May 1989. Registered
  patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: the
  chemotherapy group (MMC plus tegafur or UFT), or the
  immunochemotherapy group (chemotherapy plus lentinan). Among the 64
  completely evaluable patients, a statistically significant difference
  in the survival curve was observed between the two treatment groups.
  Immunochemotherapy with lentinan prolonged the life-span when
  compared with chemotherapy alone. Regarding the immunological effects
  of these regimens, a decrease in NK activity and an increase in the
  number of CD8(+)CD11b(+) cells (suppressor T cells) and
  CD4(+)CD45RA(+) cells (suppressor-inducer T cells) were found in the
  chemotherapy group. However, NK activity was maintained and an
  increase in the number of CD4(+)CD45RA(-) cells (helper T cells) and
  CD8(+)CD11 b(-)cells (cytotoxic T cells) was found in the
  immunochemotherapy group. Serious side effects associated with
  lentinan were not observed throughout the study. These results
  emphasize the effectiveness of lentinan as an immunotherapeutic agent
  in advanced gastric cancer.

Institutional address:
     Second Department of Surgery
     School of Medicine
     Chiba University
     1-8-1 Inohana
     Chiba 280
     Japan


*****NIPPON GAN CHIRYO GAKKAI SHI.  JOURNAL OF JAPAN SOCIETY FOR CANCER*****

(REFERENCE 19 OF 21)
91037479

Tanabe H  Imai N  Takechi K
[Studies on usefulness of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with
  lentinan in patients with gastrointestinal cancer]

In: Nippon Gan Chiryo Gakkai Shi (1990 Aug 20) 25(8):1657-67
  (Published in Japanese)

The usefulness of Lentinan, as an agent for postoperative adjuvant
  therapy, was investigated in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
  Sixty-one patients were classified into three stages by a degree of
  advance for cancer (Stage II, III, IV). Furthermore, each group was
  put into the control group (C group) and the Lentinan group (L
  group), received 600 mg/day of Tegafur p. o. only or 600 mg/day of
  Tegafur p. o. and 2 mg/week of Lentinan i. v., respectively. Then
  total lymphocyte counts and NK cell activities were measured and
  analysis of lymphocyte subsets by two color flow cytometry was
  carried out every two months. The results were as follows: 1) Some
  parameters were preserved in higher levels in the L group especially
  in the stage IV. 2) In the stage IV, total lymphocyte counts of the L
  group were preserved higher levels compared to those of the C group.
  The same tendency was observed in OKT3, OKT4 and OKT8 positive cell
  counts. 3) In the stage IV, both OKT8+ x Leu15+ cell (suppressor T
  cell) and OKT8+ x Leu15- cell (killer T cell) counts tended to
  decrease in the C group. 4) In the stage IV, the NK cell activities
  of the L group were preserved in higher level compared to those of
  the C group. Leu7+ x Leu11-, Leu7+ x Leu11+ and Leu11- x Leu11+ cells
  counts tended to preserve in the L group. From these results, it was
  suggested that Lentinan had a marked immunopotentiating efficacy in
  the stage IV among gastrointestinal cancer patients.

Institutional address:
     Department of Surgery
     Kizawa Hospital.


*****NIPPON GEKA GAKKAI ZASSHI.  JOURNAL OF JAPAN SURGICAL SOCIETY*****

(REFERENCE 20 OF 21)
84219257

Okuyama K  Isono K  Satoh H  Onoda S  Tohnosu N  Yamamoto Y  Ryu M
  Koide Y  Kimura M  Hanaoka A  et al
[Basic and clinical studies on metastatic cancer--with special
  reference of multidisciplinary treatment of gastric and colorectal
  cancer patients with hepatic metastasis]

In: Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi (1983 Sep) 84(9):796-9
  (Published in Japanese)

We studied 161 gastric cancer patients with P0, H(+) and 51
  colorectal cancer patients with P0, H(+) from among cancer patients
  of the digestive organs and obtained the following conclusions. The
  effective treatment for synchronous hepatic metastasis was regarded
  as the group with surgical removal of the primary lesion plus hepatic
  resection plus chemotherapy, demonstrating most favorable prognosis
  in both gastric and colorectal cancer patients. Prognosis of the
  group treated with surgical removal of the primary lesion plus
  hepatic resection plus chemotherapy, was the most excellent and was
  followed by the group with surgical removal of the primary lesion
  plus chemotherapy and group with surgical removal of the primary
  lesions and group surgical removal of the primary lesion in this
  order. Concerning chemotherapy after surgical removal of the primary
  lesion, continuous intraarterial infusion therapy with FML regimen
  combining Lentinan revealed more favorable prognosis also in both
  gastric and colorectal cancer patients. Hepatic resection with
  aggressive reduction surgery was of significance in the treatment for
  the patients with hepatic metastasis of H1 and H2. Long-term survival
  is also expected for the patients with metachronous hepatic
  metastasis of H1 by hepatic resection plus chemotherapy.

Institutional address:
     Second Department of Surgery
     School of Medicine
     Chiba University
     Japan.


**********

(REFERENCE 21 OF 21)
85615297

Taguchi T
LENTINAN: BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND CLINICAL TRIAL

In: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Treatment of Tumor Metastasis. Torisu M,
 Yoshida T, eds. Orlando, Florida, Academic Press, 1985. (1985):549-58

Characteristics, spectrum of antitumor activity in animal models, and
  immunological and physiological activities of lentinan are reviewed;
  also, results of Phase I, II, and III clinical trials are described.
  Phase I studies suggested that doses should be limited to 0.5-5.0
  mg/person/day; side effects noted in 50 patients (pts) included liver
  dysfunction, a feeling of heaviness in the chest, and petechiae on
  the legs (one case of each). In phase II trials (126 pts with
  gastric, colorectal, breast, liver, and other types of cancer),
  results of analyses of antitumor effects, PPD skin tests, and
  peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) counts indicated that lentinan
  should be administered once or twice a wk at doses of 0.5 or 1.0
  mg/person/day in combination with chemotherapy. In the Phase III
  trial, lentinan was administered iv at 1 mg/person/day twice weekly
  or 2 mg/person/day once a wk in combination with chemotherapeutic
  agents such as 5-fluorouracil + mitomycin C (MF) or 5-fluorouracil +
  Tegafur (FT). In the MF treatment the mitomycin C was given iv at 4
  mg/day twice a wk for the first 2 wk, followed by the same dose once
  a wk. In the FT treatment the Tegafur was administered at 400-1,200
  mg/day po, iv, or in a suppository. Sixty cases of gastric cancer
  were eligible for MF, 76 for MF + lentinan, 72 for FT, and 77 for FT
  + lentinan. Seventeen cases of colorectal cancer were eligible for
  FT, and 23 cases for FT + lentinan. Better antitumor results were
  seen in the groups in which lentinan was administered. Similarly,
  life span was increased in the lentinan-treated groups. Side effects
  possibly associated with lentinan were the same as had been seen in
  the Phase I and II studies; all were transitory and not serious.
  Incidences of positive PPD skin tests and of increases in PBL counts
  were higher in the lentinan-treated groups. It was concluded from
  this study that lentinan in combination with MF or FT should be
  effective for the treatment of pts with advanced or recurrent gastric
  or colorectal cancer. (15 Refs)

Institutional address:
     Dept. of Oncologic Surgery
     Res. Inst. for Microbial Diseases
     Osaka Univ.
     Osaka
     Japan





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